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postheadericon Physical / Biological

1.  General Land and Water Characteristics and Resources

Topography and Slope

 

Lanao del Norte has all the slope categories. A greater portion covering 92,331.06 hectares representing 24.14% of the province’s total land area within the 18-30% slope category. These areas are categorized as moderately sloping to rolling and are considered suitable to agro-forest activities. The 8%-18% slope category comes next with an area of 84,344.61 hectares representing 22.05% of the province’s total land area. The gently sloping to undulating areas (3-8%) have the smallest share which covers 38,748.93 hectares or 10.13% of the provincial area.

 

Table 1. Slope Classification, Lanao del Norte

Classification

Description

Area (Hectares)

% to Total Area

0-3%

Level to very gently sloping

40,092.41

10.48%

3-8%

Gently sloping to undulating

38,748.93

10.13%

8-18%

Moderately sloping to rolling

84,344.61

22.05%

18-30%

Rolling to hilly

92,331.06

24.14%

30-50%

Steep hills to mountainous

51,587.56

13.49%

>50%

Very steep hills to mountainous

75,374.10

19.71%

TOTAL

 

382,478.66

100%

Source:   GIS-PPDO, LDN, 2007

 

 

In terms of provincial distribution within the region, Lanao del Norte has the largest area within the 8-18% slope which represents 31.59% of the region’s total. It ranks 2nd to Bukidnon in terms of extent within the 18-30 slope category or areas which range from rolling to hilly. The province’s area with slopes greater than 50% or areas which are very steep and mountainous constitute only 10.44% of the regional total.

 

Table 2. Slope Classification by Province, Region X (in hectares)

PROVINCE

0%-3%

3%-8%

8%-18%

18%-30%

30%-50%

>50%

TOTAL

Bukidnon

111,516.00

72,627.00

75,465.00

106,366.00

136,110.00

547,775.00

1,049,859.00

Camiguin

2,362.00

3,759.00

5,382.00

3,744.00

13,940.00

-

29,187.00

Lanao del Norte*

40,092.41

38,748.93

84,344.61

92,331.06

51,587.56

75,374.10

382,478.66

Misamis Occidental

32,287.00

40,044.00

26,836.00

31,762.00

19,183.00

55,410.00

205,522.00

Misamis Oriental

46,336.00

51,111.00

77,041.00

87,251.00

48,315.00

41,516.00

351,570.00

Total

216,986.84

216,946.38

267,028.64

321,486.37

274,057.86

722,110.57

2,018,616.66

Percent Share of the Province to Region’s Total

18.48%

17.86%

31.59%

28.72%

18.82%

10.44%

18.95%

Source:   RPFP 2004-2030

GIS-PPDO, LDN, 2007


Areas which are highly suitable to agricultural uses and urban development are largely found in low-lying municipalities such as Lala and Kapatagan. Lala has 11,184.88 hectares and Kapatagan has 8,075.28 hectares within 0-3% slope class. A relatively bigger portion of 8-18% slope category which is highly suitable for agri-industrial and agro-forestry development is found in the district of Mandulog and the municipality of Nunungan with areas of 17,680.86 and 12,795.45 hectares, respectively. Largest areas with slopes greater than 50% are also found in the district of Mandulog and Nunungan.

 

Table 3.  Slope Categories by Municipalities, Lanao del Norte

MUNICIPALITY 

0%-3%

3%-8%

8%-18%

18%-30%

30%-50%

> 50%

SUB-TOTAL

Bacolod

-

7,560.41

744.24

1,670.49

-

434.86

10,410.00

Balo-i

525.09

465.77

5,144.07

1,754.21

-

-

7,889.14

Baroy

179.12

1,364.02

3,843.80

2,543.44

78.91

-

8,009.29

Iligan City

4,580.43

1,348.77

2,213.14

2,296.92

2,020.18

803.13

13,262.57

Kapatagan

8,075.28

1,519.01

1,770.37

4,099.92

3,303.98

23.02

18,791.57

Kauswagan

1,075.39

1,784.62

1,194.77

860.83

17.04

1,104.95

6,037.60

Kolambugan

1,313.88

1,810.38

3,749.15

2,995.38

1,758.21

1,828.00

13,455.00

Lala

11,184.88

-

751.32

1,870.81

217.99

-

14,025.00

Linamon

207.97

1,792.84

317.98

-

-

-

2,318.79

Magsaysay

-

25.70

1,699.68

5,236.47

1,625.09

3,512.24

12,099.18

Maigo

653.15

2,589.96

3,453.97

2,217.67

1,197.68

2,017.57

12,130.00

Mandulog

1,386.80

157.22

17,680.86

23,059.77

19,716.79

18,952.84

80,954.28

Matungao

-

3,824.47

701.91

-

-

-

4,526.38

Munai

 

909.17

7,241.79

4,306.07

1,191.70

7,569.27

21,218.00

Nunungan

 

831.85

12,795.45

8,453.99

6,186.54

20,357.17

48,625.00

Pantao Ragat

1,546.29

918.28

6,104.32

-

-

441.11

9,010.00

Pantar

3.05

-

1,903.86

1,675.76

885.02

-

4,467.69

Poona Piagapo

-

-

5,028.37

1,331.34

476.64

2,735.70

9,572.05

Salvador

2,246.93

3,928.83

1,231.83

2,799.06

184.54

1,007.81

11,399.00

Sapad

3,750.81

3,243.80

775.27

3,184.27

819.62

2,229.23

14,003.00

SND

2,390.46

-

401.96

9,438.76

6,702.36

6,121.46

25,055.00

Tagoloan

48.89

60.78

1,152.63

999.57

2,632.40

235.92

5,130.18

Tangkal

-

-

1,577.05

6,354.61

1,772.52

2,325.17

12,029.35

Tubod

923.99

4,613.05

2,866.82

5,181.72

800.36

3,674.65

18,060.59

GRAND TOTAL

40,092.41

38,748.93

84,344.61

92,331.06

51,587.56

75,374.10

382,478.66

% Distribution

10.48%

10.13%

22.05%

24.14%

13.49%

19.71%

100%

Source:   Topographic Map, LDN

GIS-PPDO, LDN, 2007

 


Elevation 

 

Lanao del Norte has the biggest area with elevation below 100 meters above sea level. This encompasses 94,811.94 hectares which constitutes 40.45% of the region’s total area. The province’s lowest share is in areas with elevation greater than 1,000 masl where Bukidnon get the biggest share being a generally highland area.

 

Table 4. Elevation  by Province, Region 10

Province

< 100 m

100-300 m

300-500 m

500-1,000 m

> 1,000 m

TOTAL

Bukidnon

1,192.00

94,905.00

200,704.00

300,435.00

452,623.00

1,049,859.00

Camiguin

6,361.00

6,126.00

4,951.00

4,087.00

7,662.00

29,187.00

Lanao del Norte*

94,811.94

90,745.92

72,498.62

101,684.19

22,737.99

382,478.66

M. Occidental

54,208.00

62,885.00

12,925.00

32,063.00

43,441.00

205,522.00

M. Oriental

77,821.00

82,664.00

78,304.00

69,735.00

43,046.00

351,570.00

GRAND TOTAL

234,393.94

337,125.92

368,982.62

507,104.19

571,009.99

2,018,616.66

Percent Share of the Province to Region’s Total

40.45%

26.86%

19.54%

19.87%

4.24%

18.95%

Source:   RPFP 2004-2030

GIS-PPDO, LDN, 2007

 

Within Lanao del Norte, the elevation classes are more or less equally distributed percentage-wise with the exception of elevation which is greater than 1,000 masl. The latter only covers 22,737.99 hectares or only 5.94% of the province’s total area. This is largely found in the municipality of Nunungan which is home to a protected area under the NIPAS category.

 

Table 5. Elevation Categories by Municipalities, Lanao del Norte

MUNICIPALITY

< 100 m

100-300 m

300-500 m

500-1000 m

> 1000 m

Total Land Area (has)

Bacolod

4,275.38

3,875.93

1,927.69

331.00

-

10,410.00

Balo-i

-

604.60

6,521.04

763.50

-

7,889.14

Baroy

6,654.13

1,355.16

-

-

-

8,009.29

Iligan City

9,258.80

2,856.97

1,146.80

-

-

13,262.57

Kapatagan

10,159.50

8,541.74

90.33

-

-

18,791.57

Kauswagan

2,132.20

2,635.60

1,269.80

-

-

6,037.60

Kolambugan

4,944.02

7,558.61

952.37

-

-

13,455.00

Lala

13,572.14

452.86

-

-

-

14,025.00

Linamon

975.80

1,332.99

10.00

-

-

2,318.79

Magsaysay

612.39

3,792.89

2,608.89

4,187.46

897.55

12,099.18

Maigo

3,771.84

4,046.70

3,018.43

1,293.03

-

12,130.00

Mandulog

3,514.39

18,203.02

20,143.65

36,213.58

2,879.64

80,954.28

Matungao

43.90

1,625.13

2,857.35

-

-

4,526.38

Munai

-

-

1,532.97

15,369.57

4,315.46

21,218.00

Nunungan

1,151.74

6,324.70

9,859.33

18,608.22

12,681.01

48,625.00

Pantao Ragat

-

-

5,286.41

3,723.59

-

9,010.00

Pantar

-

6.57

937.53

3,523.59

-

4,467.69

Poona Piagapo

-

189.99

3,244.10

6,137.96

-

9,572.05

Salvador

6,651.47

4,145.59

371.21

230.73

-

11,399.00

Sapad

6,187.59

3,316.11

2,876.70

1,622.60

-

14,003.00

SN Dimaporo

13,258.55

8,836.62

2,115.91

843.92

-

25,055.00

Tagoloan

683.06

2,441.15

1,723.81

282.16

-

5,130.18

Tangkal

-

1,164.31

2,551.03

6,550.25

1,763.76

12,029.35

Tubod

6,965.04

7,438.68

1,453.27

2,003.03

200.57

18,060.59

GRAND TOTAL

94,811.94

90,745.92

72,498.62

101,684.19

22,737.99

382,478.66

% Distribution

24.79%

23.73%

18.95%

26.59%

5.94%

100%

Source:   RPFP 2004-2030

GIS-PPDO, LDN, 2007

 

Soil Characteristics

Soil Type. The major soil type in the province is that of fine loamy to clayey type (163,387.74 hectares) and fine loamy type (152,614.71 hectares). Areas with largely clayey type of soil include the municipalities of SND, Kapatagan, Lala, Baroy, Tubod, Kolambugan and Maigo. These municipalities are situated along coast.

 

Major areas of clayey to fine loamy type of soil are found in the municipalities of Lala, Kapatagan, Sapad and Salvador. The sandy clayey soil type are only found in 11 municipalities namely; Bacolod, Kauswagan, Kolambugan, Linamon, Magsaysay, Maigo, Matungao, Munai, Pantao Ragat, Poona Piagapo and Tangkal with an aggregate total of 12,951.46 hectares.

 

The coarse loamy to fine loamy type is unique to the municipalities of Pantar and Baloi with 1,354.86 and 103.97 hectares, respectively. This type also constitutes the smallest share in the province among the different soil types.

 

Table 6. Soil Type, Lanao del Norte

MUNICIPALITY

Total Land Area

(in hectares)

SOIL TYPE

Clayey

Clayey to Fine Loamy

Fine Loamy to Clayey

Coarse Loamy to Fine Loamy

Fine Loamy

Sandy Clayey

Bacolod

10,410.00

-

-

2,327.73

-

7,405.60

676.67

Balo-i

7,889.14

-

-

7,041.61

103.97

743.56

-

Baroy

8,009.29

956.79

653.41

2,035.31

-

4,363.78

-

Iligan City

13,262.57

-

-

-

-

-

-

Kapatagan

18,791.57

3,204.67

5,929.57

7,870.63

-

1,786.70

-

Kauswagan

6,037.60

-

-

1,634.61

-

1,937.41

2,465.58

Kolambugan

13,455.00

2,064.71

50.23

9,744.64

-

739.56

855.86

Lala

14,025.00

3,350.75

8,162.16

223.14

-

2,288.95

-

Linamon

2,318.79

-

-

2.20

-

2,104.31

212.29

Magsaysay

12,099.18

-

-

11,413.02

-

200.91

485.25

Maigo

12,130.00

433.72

-

8,002.78

-

3,624.71

68.79

Mandulog

80,954.28

1,104.47

-

28,998.22

-

50,851.59

-

Matungao

4,526.38

-

-

530.91

-

3,775.17

220.30

Munai

21,218.00

-

-

6,054.07

-

12,418.87

2,745.06

Nunungan

48,625.00

826.36

-

26,476.85

-

21,321.79

-

Pantao Ragat

9,010.00

-

-

7,536.72

-

875.22

598.06

Pantar

4,467.69

-

-

3,112.83

1,354.86

-

-

Poona Piagapo

9,572.05

-

-

6,645.87

-

-

2,926.18

Salvador

11,399.00

-

2,783.19

4,026.02

-

4,589.79

-

Sapad

14,003.00

35.94

3,133.48

6,753.22

-

4,080.36

-

Sultan Naga Dimaporo

25,055.00

4,873.61

-

8,901.94

-

11,279.45

-

Tagoloan

5,130.18

-

-

2,138.93

-

2,991.25

-

Tangkal

12,029.35

-

-

3,564.11

-

6,767.82

1,697.42

Tubod

18,060.59

1,230.61

9.69

8,352.38

-

8,467.91

-

GRAND TOTAL

382,478.66

18,081.63

20,721.73

163,387.74

1,458.83

152,614.71

12,951.46

Source:  BSWM

GIS-PPDO, LDN, 2007


Soil pH. The major soil pH of the province is within range of 5.0-5.5 with an aggregate total of 208,277.88 hectares excluding Iligan City. Crops suitable to this soil pH range include potato, tomato, sweet potato, maize (corn) and many others. The next major soil pH is in the 6.5-7.0 range with a total of 103,736.8 hectares in which the district of Mandulog and the municipalities of Sultan Naga Dimaporo, Nunungan, and Munai have the largest areas. A wide-variety of high-value crops are highly suitable in this soil pH range. Very acidic soil or soil with pH 4.5-5.0 only covers 1,840.12 hectares which are distributed in the municipalities of Bacolod, Kauswagan, Lala, Maigo, Nunungan and Salvador.

 

Table 7. Soil pH, Lanao del Norte

MUNICIPALITY 

Total Land

Area

(in hectares)

SOIL pH  

4.5–5.0

5.0-5.5

5.5–6.0

6.0–6.5

6.5–7.0

Bacolod

10,410.00

1,051.42

5,694.05

3,664.53

-

-

Balo-i

7,889.14

-

6,391.88

1,497.26

-

-

Baroy

8,009.29

-

7,455.85

-

541.29

12.15

Iligan City

13,262.57

-

-

-

-

-

Kapatagan

18,791.57

-

12,811.28

-

5,329.57

650.73

Kauswagan

6,037.60

230.34

2,549.65

3,257.61

-

-

Kolambugan

13,455.00

-

12,249.00

1,195.84

-

10.16

Lala

14,025.00

99.8

6,263.04

-

7,662.16

-

Linamon

2,318.79

-

735.11

1,583.68

-

-

Magsaysay

12,099.18

-

11,509.63

324.1

-

265.45

Maigo

12,130.00

178.93

10,626.62

1324.45

-

-

Mandulog

80,954.28

-

29,299.73

-

-

51,654.55

Matungao

4,526.38

-

663.35

3,863.03

-

-

Munai

21,218.00

-

6,027.53

3,499.68

-

11,690.79

Nunungan

48,625.00

161.6

28,553.04

4,274.27

0.05

15,636.04

Pantao Ragat

9,010.00

-

6,657.96

2,352.04

-

-

Pantar

4,467.69

-

4,467.69

-

-

-

Poona Piagapo

9,572.05

-

5,594.05

3,978.00

-

-

Salvador

11,399.00

118.03

7,652.84

471.22

3,156.91

-

Sapad

14,003.00

-

9,323.82

289.72

3,933.48

455.98

Sultan Naga Dimaporo

25,055.00

-

8,660.31

650.85

-

15,743.84

Tagoloan

5,130.18

-

2,829.96

-

-

2,300.22

Tangkal

12,029.35

-

5,529.52

1,192.58

-

5,307.25

Tubod

18,060.59

-

16,731.97

1,318.93

-

9.69

GRAND TOTAL

382,478.66

1,840.12

208,277.88

34,737.79

20,623.46

103,736.85

Source:   BSWM

GIS-PPDO, LDN, 2007

 


 

Soil Permeability. Soil permeability is the capability of the soil to absorb water which is expressed in terms of centimeter per hour.  Categorization of soil in terms of permeability is based on slope and soil texture.  The soil permeability map obtained from BSWM shows that a sizeable portion of the province or 40% of its total area has moderate permeability.

 

Table 8. Soil Permeability, Lanao del Norte

MUNICIPALITY

Total Land Area (in hectares)

CLASSIFICATION

Slow

(<0.15 cm/hr) 

Moderately Slow

(.15 – 0.5 cm/hr) 

Moderate (0.5 – 1.5 cm/hr) 

Moderately Rapid

(1.5 – 3.0 cm/hr) 

Bacolod

10,410.00

8.47

1,250.91

3,430.93

5,719.69

Balo-i

7,889.14

827.40

4,642.81

1,472.23

946.70

Baroy

8,009.29

-

1,578.68

6,031.58

399.03

Iligan City

13,262.57

-

-

-

-

Kapatagan

18,791.57

84.47

6,409.41

12,297.69

-

Kauswagan

6,037.60

-

446.48

4,397.78

1,193.34

Kolambugan

13,455.00

3,483.22

6,113.06

3,537.23

321.49

Lala

14,025.00

-

7,888.99

6,136.01

-

Linamon

2,318.79

-

-

449.99

1,868.80

Magsaysay

12,099.18

5,091.78

6,329.48

539.08

138.84

Maigo

12,130.00

-

1,326.25

8,057.81

2,745.94

Mandulog

80,954.28

-

7.69

69,676.91

11,269.68

Matungao

4,526.38

-

-

976.28

3,550.10

Munai

21,218.00

1,290.75

-

19,587.77

339.48

Nunungan

48,625.00

34,414.63

-

3,868.22

10,342.15

Pantao Ragat

9,010.00

425.08

-

7,666.74

918.18

Pantar

4,467.69

-

1,615.43

2,852.26

-

Poona Piagapo

9,572.05

-

-

9,572.05

-

Salvador

11,399.00

486.05

0.23

7,430.64

3482.080

Sapad

14,003.00

4,970.47

139.00

7,534.52

1,359.01

Sultan Naga Dimaporo

25,055.00

3,310.24

7,934.14

13,810.62

-

Tagoloan

5,130.18

-

1,934.34

3,195.84

-

Tangkal

12,029.35

1,004.13

2,767.18

7,492.67

765.37

Tubod

18,060.59

3,888.05

5,082.08

3,216.96

5,873.50

GRAND TOTAL

382,478.66

59,284.75

55,466.16

203,231.81

51,233.38

Source:  BSWM

GIS-PPDO, LDN, 2007

 

 

 


Soil Drainage Capacity. Most of the municipalities in Lanao del Norte are well drained which covers an area of 273,081.23 hectares which constitute about 70 percent of the province’s total area. In several municipalities – particularly Bacolod, Kauswagan, Kolambugan, Linamon, Magsaysay, Maigo, Matungao, Munai, Pantao Ragat, Poona Piagapo and Tangkal, soil drainage capacity is excessive. The same municipalities, also have portions where drainage capacity is poor.

 

Areas where drainage capacity is moderate include the municipalities of Bacolod, Kauswagan, Linamon, Maigo, Matungao, Nunungan, Pantao Ragat, Salvador, Sapad and Tubod. The rest of the municipalities do not have this drainage classification.

 

Table 9.  Soil Drainage Capacity, Lanao del Norte

MUNICIPALITY

Total Land 

Area

(in hectares)

CLASSIFICATION

Excessively Drained

Moderate Drained

Moderate to Well– Drained

Poor

Poor to Well– Drained

Well– Drained

Bacolod

10,410.00

431.56

3,194.43

6,312.98

190.87

-

280.16

Balo-i

7,889.14

-

-

734.94

962.27

-

6,191.93

Baroy

8,009.29

-

-

490.47

711.98

799.13

6,007.71

Iligan City

13,262.57

-

-

-

-

-

-

Kapatagan

18,791.57

-

-

-

3,107.64

5,329.57

10,354.36

Kauswagan

6,037.60

1,478.48

891.30

1,526.49

484.12

-

1,657.21

Kolambugan

13,455.00

795.84

-

676.96

1,941.71

10.16

10,030.33

Lala

14,025.00

-

-

99.8

4,650.75

7,562.16

1,712.29

Linamon

2,318.79

691.79

1,539.35

82.45

5.2

-

-

Magsaysay

12,099.18

712.61

-

108.24

-

-

11,278.33

Maigo

12,130.00

43.77

980.69

2,724.87

636.57

-

7,744.10

Mandulog

80,954.28

-

-

-

2,854.44

-

78,099.84

Matungao

4,526.38

229.05

2,758.90

985.01

-

-

553.42

Munai

21,218.00

3,055.29

99.28

-

795.31

-

17,268.12

Nunungan

48,625.00

-

5,879.20

565.14

-

235.73

41,944.93

Pantao Ragat

9,010.00

873.21

265.22

210.86

1102.74

-

6,557.97

Pantar

4,467.69

-

-

-

-

-

4,467.69

Poona Piagapo

9,572.05

3,626.17

-

-

-

-

5,945.88

Salvador

11,399.00

-

471.22

3,496.04

-

2,731.85

4,699.89

Sapad

14,003.00

-

295.97

738.89

-

3,758.20

9,209.94

Sultan Naga Dimaporo

25,055.00

-

-

-

1,762.69

1,181.50

22,110.81

Tagoloan

5,130.18

-

-

-

-

-

5,130.18

Tangkal

12,029.35

1,800.60

-

-

-

-

10,228.75

Tubod

18,060.59

-

1,240.39

3,393.97

1,730.62

88.22

11,607.39

GRAND TOTAL

382,478.66

13,738.37

17,615.95

22,147.11

20,936.91

21,696.52

273,081.23

Source:  BSWM

GIS–PPDO, LDN, 2007

 

2.  Land and Water Resources

LAND RESOURCES

Mountains and Mountain Ranges

Lanao del Norte has numerous mountains and mountain ranges of varying widths and elevations. Some of the highest mountains, including Mounts Inayawan (1,535 meters above sea level) and Katubuan (1,250 meters above sea level) are found in the municipality of Nunungan. Also found in Nunungan are mountain ranges which include Tumaan and Galantay. These mountains, which form part of the Nunungan watershed, are vital to the integrity of the river systems that made possible the operation of irrigation facilities in the Kapatagan Valley.

 

Mount Puarai in the municipality of Munai stands at 1,000 meters above sea level. This mountain stretches downhill to the municipality of Poona Piagapo. In the western part of Munai, another mountain range with an average elevation of 900 (masl) stretches through the municipality of Tangkal.

 

The municipality of Sultan Naga Dimaporo is also endowed with several mountains which include Militar, Dugdanan, Dugalanan, Sigayan, Darampi Baongbaong and Rebucon. These mountains have an elevation range of 200 to 600 meters above sea level. Adjacent to these mountains are areas belonging to the municipalities of Sapad and Nunungan.

 

In the municipality of Kolambugan, Mounts Catmon, Javier and Bucas are arrayed in a rectangular position. These mountains have an average height of 550 masl. Also adjacent to these mountains is the Mount Torongtorong of the municipality of Tubod. These mountains can be viewed from the Panguil Bay. In the Southernmost of Tubod is the Tamay Mountain Range which also connects to the municipalities of Salvador and Nunungan.

 

 

Hills

Several hills are found in the province of Lanao del Norte. These are Kabasagan and Pendulonan Hills in the municipality of Lala; Pawak Hill in Balo-i; Tulunan and Mikulago Hills in Sultan Naga Dimaporo; Apo Hill in Pantao Ragat, and Mahayahay Hills in Sapad. There are also other hills which are mostly found in interior municipalities and which are still unnamed.

 


Valleys/Plains

 

Lanao del Norte has one significant valley which greatly contribute to the economic life of the province – the Kapatagan Valley. It is considered as the rice granary of Lanao del Norte. This Valley straddles several municipalities including Lala, Salvador, Sapad, Kapatagan and portions of Baroy and Tubod. It is supported with irrigation systems operated by the National Irrigation Administration (NIA).

 

The Baloi Plans within the municipality of Baloi, is utilized primarily for rice and corn production. Another valley, the Kalibao Valley, located in the municipality of Sultan Naga Dimaporo, is mainly utilized for rice crop production. Smaller plains in the municipality are also cultivated for rice and corn production.

 

 

Caves

 

In Lanao del Norte, only Mighty Cave in the municipality of Tagoloan has gained popularity and extensively promoted as eco-tourism destination. The Provincial Government of Lanao del Norte works closely with the municipality of Tagoloan to further improve access to the site.

 

 

 

 

 


WATER RESOURCES

Watershed 

 

Watershed is a topographically alienated area of land from which rainwater can drain as surface run offs, via a specific stream of river system to common outlet point which maybe a dam, irrigation system or municipal water supply take off point of where the stream/river discharge into a larger river, lake or sea.

 

There are twenty (20) watershed areas identified within the province with a total area of 283,089 hectares. The Agus River Basin, one of the major river basins drains an area of 1,645 square kilometers emptying in Iligan Bay through Iligan City. This river basin feeds the hydroelectric plants in Baloi, Lanao del Norte and Iligan City, which are the sources of electric power for the whole island of Mindanao.

 

Maranding Watershed covers the municipalities of Kapatagan, Lala, Salvador, Magsaysay, Sapad, Nunungan, Sultan Naga Dimaporo and Tangkal.  Its sources include Lakes Penda and Nunungan, Dipolo and Maranding Rivers, Cathedral, Putadun, Kabugan, Mapurog, Balimbing, Inudaran and Kapatagan Creeks. Its river systems are utilized for irrigation systems in the Kapatagan Valley which is considered as the province’s rice granary, as well as, for domestic uses before it empties into Panguil Bay.  The Quidalos-Butadon River is also another important source of irrigation in the Kapatagan Valley.

 

Mandulog Watershed is the largest among the province’s watersheds. It flows in the northwest direction. It encompasses most of the river systems that stretch throughout the different parts of Iligan which all empties in Iligan Bay. These river systems support the agricultural industry in Mandulog areas, as well as, industrial plants found in the city. Titunod River flows in the same direction as the Mandulog watershed and empties into the Panguil Bay.

 

Liangan Watershed also flows in the northwest direction with sources including the municipalities of Munai, Tangkal, Pantao Ragat and Bacolod through the Liangan and Lacongan Rivers. It empties into Panguil Bay by way of Bacolod and Maigo municipalities. The Liangan River is presently undergoing characterization of which will be tapped as sources for the proposed mini-hydroelectric plant in the municipality of Bacolod. The proposed mini-hydroelectric plant is also targeted to support the Metro Iligan Agri-Industrial Center (MIRAIC) in the municipality of Linamon.

 

As of 2007, out of the 20 identified watershed areas in Lanao del Norte, four are already characterized by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) Region X. These are the watersheds of Iligan River, Mandulog River, Maranding River, and Titunod River.

 


Table 3.26  Watershed Areas, Lanao del Norte

Name of Watershed

Municipality Covered

Area (in hectares)

% Share

1.  Iligan River

Mun. of Pantar, Baloi, Tagoloan, Iligan City

12,857.00

4.45

2.  Mandulog Watershed

Iligan City, Tagoloan, Kapai, Ramain Tagoloan II, Bubong, Lanao del Sur, Manticao, Mis. Oriental

82,500.00

29.14

3.  Titunod Watershed

Kolambugan

10,313.00

3.64

4.  Maranding Watershed

Mun. of Kapatagan, Lala, Salvador, Magsaysay, Sapad, Nunungan, Sultan Naga Dimaporo, Tangkal

56,962.00

20.12

5.  Liangan River

Mun. of Munai, Tangkal, Pantao Ragat & Bacolod

27,960.00

9.87

6.  Lipatan River

Matungao & Kauswagan

17,964.00

6.34

7.  Agus River

Linamon, Baloi-Poona-Piagapo, LDN, Saguiaran, Marantao, LDS

11,320.00

3.99

8.  Sigayan Watershed

Sigayan, Karomatan

10,839.00

3.82

9.  Kauswagan River

Kauswagan

3,537.00

1.25

  1. Maigo River

Pantao Ragat & Maigo

7,708.00

2.72

  1. Kolasihan River

Kolambugan

3,485.00

1.23

  1. Pulot River

Tubod

10,219.00

3.61

  1. Patudan

Baroy & Tubod

5,850.00

2.06

  1. Raw-an River

Baroy

4,112.00

1.45

  1. Tunawan River

Lala & Baroy

4,404.00

1.55

  1. Lala River

Lala

2,020.00

0.71

  1. Millar

Karomatan

2,032.00

0.72

  1. Dugolanon

Karomatan

2,679.00

0.94

  1. Karangan

Karomatan

3,622.00

1.28

  1. Mikulago Creek

Karomatan

2,704.00

0.95

Total Area

 

283,087.00

Source: Topographic Map

GIS-PPDO, LDN, 2007

Rivers. There are several major river systems in Lanao del Norte. Two of which plays a significant role in the economic development of the province. Agus River, for one, is the source of hydro energy generation facility operated by the National Power Corporation through its hydropower plants located at strategic areas in Lanao del Norte. Agus River flows from Lanao Lake in Lanao del Sur and traverses northwest through several municipalities including Pantar and Baloi of Lanao del Norte before it empties into the Iligan Bay.

 

Maranding River, on the other hand, has been utilized by the National Irrigation Authority (NIA) to cater agriculture industry in the province particularly rice production in the Kapatagan Valley. Maranding River system covers several municipalities including Sapad, Salvador, Kapatagan and Lala and serves as the life-blood that supports not only agricultural production in the areas mentioned but as well as economic development in the entire province. Other river systems play the same important roles in domestic and agricultural developments.

Lakes. There are seven lakes found in Lanao del Norte: Babuyan Lake in Tubod; Penda and Nunungan Lakes all found in Nunungan; and Talao Lake and Piurai Lake in Munai. A man-made lake is found in Barangay Nangka in Baloi. This was built by the National Power Corporation (NPC) to support its Agus 4 hydroelectric power generation plant. These lakes, natural and man-made, also provide source of food for consumption and means of livelihood that enable local inhabitants living alongside to augment household incomes.

Water Falls. Lanao del Norte is endowed with waterfalls. The Maria Cristina Falls in Iligan City is utilized for hydroelectric power generation. It is also known for its panorama. Another potential source for hydroelectric power generation is the Pagayawan Falls in Bacolod. The provincial government has spearheaded in characterizing the Pagayawan Falls, including the entire Liangan Watershed, in support to the proposed establishment of a mini-hydro power plant. The proposed mini-hydro power plant is specifically targeted to support the Metro Iligan Agri-Industrial Center (MIRAIC) in the municipality of Linamon.

 

The Tinago Falls in Linamon is the most frequently visited among the province’s ecotourism destinations. The Cathedral and Sta. Cruz and Kidalos Falls, all situated in Kapatagan, are considered to have high potentials for ecotourism. There are other minor waterfalls found in interior parts of the municipalities of Munai, Matungao, Tangkal and Nunungan but are hardly accessible. These are being used by the local communities for bathing and picnic activities.

 

Springs. Several natural springs are found in the different municipalities of the province. The Lidpa Subterranean River in the municipality of Munai has attracted scientific study of rock formation. Another two springs – the Lumbac and Kawa-kawa Springs – are also found in Munai.

 

The Kalilangan Spring in the municipality of Tubod attracts local residents and nearby communities with its cool and crystal clear waters flowing freely from underground springs to a natural pool.

 

In the municipality of Salvador, two springs are appropriately developed into resorts for multi-purpose gatherings. Both are found in Barangay Inasagan. Two adjacent springs – Pili Hot and Cold Springs – are found in Barangay Pili in the municipality of Sapad. These springs are used mainly for domestic purposes.


Coastal Resources

 

Lanao del Norte is rich in coastal resources.  It has eleven (11) coastal municipalities with a total shoreline stretching 151.39 kilometers. These areas encompass three bays, Illana Bay, Panguil Bay and Iligan Bay.

 

Beaches. The province is also endowed beaches which have retained some of its pristine features. The Pigkalawag Beach in Sultan Naga Dimaporo is potential for scuba diving.  The other popular beaches: Mago-ong and Samburon Beaches in Linamon; and Kutitap and Granaderos beaches in Maigo are known for their quiet ambience. There are also undeveloped beaches in the municipalities of Tubod, Baroy and Lala which are used by local residents living nearby but are hardly visited by tourists.

 

Foreshore Land. The foreshore is a part of the coast.  It divides the land and the sea.  The term foreshore is a legally accepted term under Philippine Law denoting the strip of land that is covered and uncovered by the movement of the tides of the sea. Foreshore areas vary in size depending on terrain and oceanic condition. Foreshore lands have enormous economic potential for tourism, fishery, commerce and industry. It is therefore important that a survey inventory be conducted in order to delineate the foreshore land to its nearest estimate.

 

As per records from the DENR Region X, Lanao del Norte has an estimated foreshore land of 567 hectares distributed in eleven (11) coastal municipalities (Table 3.28).

 

Table 3.27 Foreshore Land Delimitation Survey (FLDS), Lanao del Norte

MUNICIPALITY

FORESHORE LAND AREA

(in hectares)

Sultan Naga Dimaporo

50

Kapatagan

60

Lala Lanao del Norte

60

Baroy

50

Tubod

50

Kolambugan

50

Maigo

47

Bacolod

47

Kauswagan

47

Linamon

53

Iligan City

53

TOTAL

567

Source: DENR X, 2007

 

 


Geologic Features

 

The Province of Lanao del Norte is composed of uplifted metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary rocks that were formed from pre-Cretaceous to Recent. These rocks are the result of magmatic and tectonic actions generated by westward and northeast crustal dipping plates that were subducted during the course of the evolution of the entire area. The province is part of the Philippine eastern plate and is considered tectonically active.

 

The oldest rock formations in the province are metamorphic rocks (pre-cretaceous to cretaceous). These are hornblende-quartz-feldspar gneiss and chlorite phyllites. They are considered part of the basement complex of Lanao del Norte. This rock unit occurs as rugged mountains and ridges that are generally forested.

 

Overlying the phyllites are the intercalated metavolcanics and meta-sedimentary rocks. The volcanic rocls are dense andesite and basalt lava flows and pyroclastics. Pillow structures are developed in the basald; columnar and auto-brecciated structures in the andesite lavas. The intercalated metamorphosed sandstone, greywacke, shale, mudstone and conglomerate lenses are dense. These rock units form rugged ridges and mountains. Paleocene rocks such as peridotite, dunite, and gabbro also occur in the province.

 

Early Miocene formation in the Province includes reefal limestone and calcarenite. Overlying these rocks are interbeds of conglomerate, sandstone, fossiliferous bluish siltstone, mudstone and light-colored reefal limestone (Middle Miocene).

 

Late Miocene to Pleistocene rock units include thin bedded, soft, fossiliferous blue-gray mudstone that are locally topped by siltstone, sandstone and conglomerate interbeds and rarely intercalated with impure limestone. Field evidences show that deposition is in shallow marine environment.

 

Plio-Pleistocene formations in the province include a lower coralline, megafossiliferous, conglomerate interbeds. On the other hand, the upper member is characterized by fossiliferous mudstone, marl, impure limestone, sandstone conglomerate with a younger, poorly consolidated sandstone, calcareous siltstone and conglomerate.

 

Pliocene to recent deposits include basalt and andesite flows overlying tertiary rocks and considerable loose deposits. Rock sequences include agglomerates, tuff, tuffaceous shale and sandstones. Composition is basaltic to andesitic. These rocks were deposited under subaqueous to terrestrial conditions.

 

Recent deposits in the province include outwash, valley fill, coastal overlying and swamp deposits composed of clay, silt, sand, gravel and reefs. Geologic Map presents the distribution of the rock groups.


Mineral Resources

 

Part of Lanao del Norte is directly underlain by igneous rocks, specifically basalt and andesite.  Associated with this type of rocks are metallic deposits such as chromite, manganese, gold, copper and pyrite.  These deposits can be found along the Aurora Plateau and eastern side of Lake Lanao. The Miocene sediments in the area contain coral deposits.  Limestone can also be observed in some parts of the province but the prominent area is in Iligan City.  These deposits are the present source of raw materials for cement production.  Caves and cavities are also common with limestone rocks wherein guano deposits are commonly found such as in Kiwalan, Iligan City.  Guanos, which are excrement of bats and birds, can be utilized as fertilizers and gun powder. Bentonite and silica as well as copper sulfide mineralization are also present. In the municipality of Lala, bentonitic deposits are present. The “white clays” could also be used for the adjustment of ceramics body and as a glaze.

 

 

Climate

Historically, the province generally falls under Type III climate. In effect, it has no pronounced maximum rain period. In the 2006-2007 data recorded by PAG-ASA’s observatory station in Kapatagan, Lanao del Norte, no remarkable rainfall trend was recorded. Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year with an average of 13 and 12.50 days a month in 2006 and 2007. In 2006, the heaviest precipitation occurred in the month of August while in 2007 the heaviest precipitation fell on September. The average amount of rainfall was 166.43mm in 2006 and 96.68mm in 2007.

 

Table 3.28 Number of Rainy Days and Amount of Rainfall, 2006-2007

Month

Number of Rainy Days

Amount of Rainfall (mm)

2006

2007

2006

2007

January

10

9

132.2

28.4

February

17

5

318.8

71.0

March

10

6

86.4

32.4

April

9

9

22.4

28.6

May

11

12

83.4

77.2

June

20

22

211.8

147.6

July

16

18

223.6

201.8

August

16

18

496.0

131.0

September

14

17

133.6

204.2

October

14

9

184.0

79.6

November

7

12

31.2

94.3

December

13

13

73.8

64.0

TOTAL

156

150

1,997.20

1,160.10

Average

13

12.5

166.43

96.68

Source: PAGASA Observatory Station, Kapatagan, LDN, 2007

 

 

 

Rainy seasons extend somewhat beyond its usual months while dry seasons are suddenly cut-off from its cycle. Recorded information tells us that the province has experienced five major flooding events from 1999 to 2008; this was attributed to heavy rain downpours. El Niño phenomenon also hit the province in the later part of 1990s. With the climatic changes that the province is now experiencing, it is therefore likely to experience either phenomenon in the future.